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Labuan Bulletin of International Business & Finance

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Labuan Bulletin of International Business & Finance


Discipline(s) / Subdiscipline(s):

     1. Social Sciences
         - Economics & finance
         - Law
         - Business & administration

E-ISSN: 2600-7894
Print ISSN: 1675-7262
Publisher: Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Publication type: Print & Electronic
Publication frequency: 2 time(s) per year
Journal Website: https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/lbibf

Contact Info

Labuan Bulletin of International Business & Finance
Labuan Faculty of International Finance
Universiti Malaysia Sabah
87000 F.T. Labuan, Malaysia

Email: lbibf@ums.edu.my

LBIBf is published annually by Labuan Faculty of International Finance, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any forms (electronic, mechanical, photocopying and recording) without prior written permission of the publisher.


  • Labuan Bulletin of International Business & Finance (LBIBf) offers platform for researchers and practitioners to share their findings and analytical views on issues relevant to international business and finance, both in their general and specific contexts. We welcome submission of original articles pertaining to business, banking, finance, marketing, management, economics, information technology, e-commerce, law and other topics that related to phenomenon of international business and finance. The journal is fully refereed, with all published articles undergoing a blind peer-review process of greatest integrity. We accept articles from any country of origin, but should hold interest for broad readerships. The readership includes business and finance practitioners, scholars, researchers, policy makers and graduate students.

Labuan Bulletin of International Business & Finance


Editorial Board

  • Associate Professor Dr. Mohamad Rizal Abdul Hamid (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia)
  • Dr. Mohd Fahmi Ghazali (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia)
Managing Editor
  • Dr. Anath Rau Krishnan (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia)
  • Dr. Ricky Chia Chee Jiun (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia)
  • Dr. Norhamiza Ishak (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia)
Associate Managing Editor
  • Dr. Mohd Ashari Bakri (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia)
  • Mr. Ahmad Aizuddin Hamzah (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia)
  • Mr. Pg Mohd Faezul Fikri Ag Omar (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia)
  • Miss Nurshila Ahmad (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia)
Editorial Advisors
  • Professor Dr. Lean Hooi Hooi (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia)
  • Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hanudin Amin (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia)
  • Assoc. Prof. Dr. Lee Hock Ann (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia)
  • Dr. Narentheren a/l Kaliappen (Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia)
  • Dr. Tuck Cheong Tang (Universiti Malaya, Malaysia)




• The language of the LBIBf is English. The manuscript (excluding footnotes and references) should be typewritten double-spaced on one side of white A4 paper (210 x 297mm) and with a wide margin of at least 3cm on all sides. Each page of the manuscript should be numbered consecutively. An electronic version of the manuscript (preferably in Microsoft Word), should be submitted through https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/lbibf/login. Author Identification:
• Papers are refereed anonymously, so there should be no identifying marks of any kind, and only the title of the article should appear on the first page. A separate title page should be attached which contain the following information: (i) full title of the manuscript; (ii) names and affiliations of all authors; (iii) an abstract of not more than 200 words; (iv) a maximum of five keywords; (v) a maximum of three JEL classification codes; and (vi) full address (including email, telephone and fax) of the corresponding author. Footnotes:
• As far as possible, footnotes should be kept to a minimum. Footnotes should be designated by superscript Arabic numerals in serial order throughout the manuscript. Each footnote should be placed at the bottom of the manuscript page where reference to it is made.


• All equations should be numbered consecutively, and the numbers should be placed in parentheses in the right hand margin. Authors are encouraged to use the following order for parentheses: {[(…)]}.

Figures and Tables:

• These should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and, where necessary, should include a title (caption). Figures and tables should be provided on separate sheets at the end of the manuscript and their positions indicated in the text. Vertical rules should not be used in tables and horizontal rules should be kept to a minimum. Figures (charts, graphs, or other artwork) should be ready for photographic reproduction or scanning as they cannot be redrawn by the printer.

Citation and References:

• All references, with complete bibliographic information, are to be placed in alphabetical order, in a list at the end of the paper entitled “References’. Only cited works are to be included in the reference list. All citations should appear in the text using Harvard-style referencing, i.e. author’s name and year of publication in parenthesis, e.g., (Jones and Brown, 2002). If there are more than two authors, the first author should be cited followed by ‘et al.’, e.g., (Brock et al., 2002). The names of all authors, however, will appear in the reference list. If two or more works by the same author are cited together, the author’s name is followed by the various years of publication arranged in chronological order, e.g., (Azali, 1999, 2000, 2002).
• Where reference is made to more than one work by the same author published in the same year, identify each citation in the text by addition of a small letter, e.g., (Lim, 2002a); (Lim, 2002b). When several authors are cited, there are to be arranged in chronological order and separated by semicolons, e.g., Hinich, 1982; Brooks, 1992; Hinich and Brooks, 2001. Proofs:
• Proofs will be sent to the author for checking. This stage is to be used only to correct errors that may have been introduced during the production process. Prompt return of the corrected proofs, preferably within one week of receipt, will minimize the risk of the paper being held over to a later issue. The publisher reserves the right to charge authors for excessive correction of non-typographical errors. A hard-copy of the Journal will be provided to the corresponding author/author(s). Additional numbers may be purchased if ordered.

Practice Notes:

• In addition to standard articles, the LBIBf will also consider shorter items which report on single issues of practice, summarize research work in progress, or give a digest of research findings. These must not exceed 2,500 words and should follow the conventions given above.


• Submit your paper through https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/lbibf/login.
• Immediately after receiving the manuscript, the managing editor will review it and assign it to the reviewer for the reviewing process.
• Important for the LBIBF Journals is a short publishing process. Consequently, submitted manuscripts are published within reasonable time (not taking unexpected and unforeseen problems into account). The publication timescale is dependent on the size of the manuscript as well as the conformity of the submitted work with the guidelines. The publication timescale is also dependent on the reviewing process (all members of the editorial board agreed on reviewing within reasonable time). However, the goal of LBIBF is that the editor will inform you of their first decision within 8 weeks.
• The manuscript that is accepted to publish in this journal will be charged with No Fees.
• Note that the downloaded pdf-publications are for personal use only: distribution is prohibited.
• The author is not provided with free copies because the publication can be downloaded for free.
• All contributions are stored in the archives of the journal, https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/lbibf/issue/archive.

Author Ethics

1. The author is responsible for the manuscript sent to the journal and declares that the manuscript sent is the correct manuscript as the result of his own research or his thought, original as his own work and does not manipulate data, honestly and freely plagiarism.
2. the author should inform that the manuscript submitted / submitted to the editor is a script that has never been submitted / submitted to the publisher of another journal / publication. If there is any redundancy in the submission of a manuscript to another publisher, then the editor will reject the submitted manuscript.
3. The author shall indicate quotations and references obtained from the work of others and may not alter or alter the source.
4. The author will not object if the script is edited without changing the substance or main idea of writing.
5. the author must understand the ethics of scientific publications above to avoid any conflict of interest with other parties, so the script can be processed smoothly and safely.

Overall, the LBIBf adheres to the highest ethical standards concerning editorial and research conduct. Every submission of paper to LBIBf will be taken to imply that it presents original unpublished work and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere at the same time. It is the responsibility of the author (s) to obtain written permission, prior to submission of a paper, to quote from or reproduce copyright material. It is further understood that all persons listed as authors have given their approval for the submission of the paper and that any person cited as a source of personal communication has approved such citation.

A Copyright Transfer Agreement (CTA) must be signed and returned to the Managing Editor by the author of accepted manuscripts, prior to publication. This transfer of copyright enables the publisher to disseminate the author’s work to the fullest extent. The copyright covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, photographic reproductions, microfilm or any other reproduction of similar nature, and translations.

Copyright Notice

Submission of paper to LBIBf will be taken to imply that it presents original unpublished work and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere at the same time. It is the responsibility of the author(s) to obtain written permission, prior to submission of a paper, to quote from or reproduce copyrighted material. It is further understood that all persons listed as authors have given their approval for the submission of the paper and that any person cited as a source of personal communication has approved such citation.

Privacy Statement
The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.

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